A 2016 NBER article showed that homicide rates in South Carolina that enacted and enforced a ban increased by about 30 to 60 percent compared to counties that did not enforce the ban.  A 2009 study found an increase in homicides in Chicago during prohibition.  However, some researchers have attributed crime during the prohibition period to increasing urbanization rather than the criminalization of alcohol consumption.  In some cities, such as New York, crime rates dropped during the prohibition era.  The overall crime rate decreased from 1849 to 1951, making crime during the prohibition period less likely due to the criminalization of alcohol alone.  [Why?] Doctors could prescribe medical alcohol to their patients. After only six months of ban, more than 15,000 doctors and 57,000 pharmacists have been authorized to prescribe or sell medical alcohol. According to Gastro Obscura, an unenforceable or corrupt law is a bad law, and the Volstead law was ultimately discredited. It decimated the legitimate beer, liquor and wine industry in the United States, but Americans who wanted to drink continued to drink as alcohol poured in from neighboring countries. Estimated consumption in the 1920s has fallen to half of its previous level – a far cry from abstinence advocates who believed that alcohol consumption would somehow become a historical anomaly that was thought possible.
These two anti-prohibition buttons reflect the feelings of many people who opposed the ban on the sale of alcohol from 1919 to 1933. With the country mired in the Great Depression in 1932, job creation and revenue from the legalization of the alcohol industry had undeniable appeal. Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt ran for president that year on a platform calling for the repeal of prohibition, easily defeating incumbent President Herbert Hoover. FDR`s victory meant the end of prohibition, and in February 1933, Congress passed a resolution proposing a 21st Amendment to the Constitution that would repeal the 18th. The amendment was submitted to the states, and in December 1933, Utah submitted the 36th and final vote needed for ratification. Although some states continued to ban alcohol after prohibition ended, all had abandoned the ban in 1966. On November 18, 1918, prior to the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment, the United States Congress passed the Temporary Wartime Prohibition Act, which prohibits the sale of alcoholic beverages with an alcohol content greater than 1.28%.
 (This law, which was intended to save grain for the war effort, was passed after the armistice was signed at the end of World War I on November 11, 1918.) The Wartime Prohibition Act came into effect on June 30, 1919, and on July 1, 1919, became known as “Thirsty First.”   Federal and local governments struggled to enforce prohibition throughout the 1920s. Enforcement was first handed over to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and then transferred to the Department of Justice and the Bureau of Prohibition or Bureau of Prohibition. In general, prohibition was much more enforced in areas where people sympathized with the legislation – mainly rural areas and small towns – and much more freely in urban areas. Despite very early signs of success, including a drop in arrests for drunkenness and a 30% drop in alcohol consumption, those who wanted to keep drinking found increasingly ingenious ways to do so. The illegal production and sale of alcohol (known as “smuggling”) continued throughout the decade, as did the operation of “speakeasies” (shops or nightclubs selling alcohol), the smuggling of alcohol across state borders, and the informal production of alcohol (“moonlight” or “bath gin”) in private homes. When prohibition was lifted in 1933, many smugglers and suppliers with wet sympathies simply embarked on the legitimate liquor trade. Some crime syndicates have focused their efforts on expanding their racketeering to include the sale of legal liquor and other businesses.  The strength of anti-saloon sentiment – you don`t get an amendment to the U.S. Constitution passed on a whim – gave prohibition a chance of success. Even after the repeal in 1933, some states chose to remain dry, and the last to yield, Mississippi, did not do so until 1966. But there was a fatal flaw at the heart of the Volstead Act, which put into practice the provisions of the 18th Amendment. It prohibited the production, sale and distribution of alcohol for consumption (industrial alcohol was excluded), but it did not prohibit consumption.
People could still drink – if they could get the product. To prevent smugglers from using industrial ethyl alcohol to produce illegal beverages, the federal government ordered the poisoning of industrial alcohol. In response, smugglers hired chemists who managed to restore the alcohol to make it drinkable. In response, the Treasury Department urged manufacturers to add more deadly poisons, including particularly deadly methyl alcohol, which consists of 4 parts methanol, 2.25 parts pyridine base, and 0.5 parts benzene for every 100 parts ethyl alcohol.  New York coroners strongly opposed this policy because of the danger to human life. Up to 10,000 people died from the consumption of denatured alcohol before prohibition ended.  New York Coroner Charles Norris believed that the government had claimed responsibility for the murder, even though he knew that the poison did not deter consumption, and nevertheless continued to poison industrial alcohol (which would be used to drink alcohol). Norris noted: “The government knows it will not stop drinking by putting poison in alcohol.
It continues its poisoning processes, regardless of whether people who are determined to drink ingest this poison daily. Knowing that this is true, the U.S. government must be given moral responsibility for deaths caused by poisoned alcohol, although it cannot be held legally responsible.  ZEIT: Why was the sale of alcohol banned? But the main reason for the straw that broke the camel`s back was the stock market crash and the depression that followed, as federal tax revenues disappeared and the government went up in smoke.