6.The prepositional case is used to designate a place or person (object) that is an object of speech and thought. This case is always used with a preposition. So how does the Russian genitive affect names? The nominative case shows the subject or actor of the action or predicate. -> Since the noun (trains) answers the question “much of what?”, the genitive applies, and the ending -ов is added to the word поезд. Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) has a true dative case for pronouns, but for nouns, the dative case marker (postposition) को کو (ko) must be constructed to nouns in their oblique case. Hindustani pronouns also have an oblique case, so dative pronouns can also be constructed using the dative case marker को کو (ko) with the pronouns in their oblique case, forming two groups of synonymous dative pronouns. The following table shows the pronouns in their nominative and dative forms. Hindustani lack third-person pronouns and demonstrative pronouns are doubled with third-person pronouns.   The dative case can also be used with gerunds to indicate an action before or simultaneously with the main action in one sentence: (lt) jam įėjus, visi atsistojo – when he entered, everyone stood up. (LT) Jai Miegant, Visi Dirbo – While she slept, everyone worked until she slept, everyone worked. The best thing you can do is practice Russian genitive. How? Use the StoryLearning method®. Get in touch with the Russian language on a daily basis by reading books in Russian or listening to Russian.
If you listen and read, the genitive will become second nature to you. If you`re willing to go further, read Gulnara Useinova`s book “Russian in a Simple Way” to deepen your understanding of the cases. The rules for changing plural nouns to genitive are as follows: In this sentence, the word человеку is in the dative and answers the question “to whom”. Note the change in the ending: when used in sentences, the forms of nouns, pronouns, numbers, and adjectives change by adding different endings. These forms are called cases. The nominative answers the questions кто/что (ktoh/chtoh), which means who/what, and identifies the subject of a sentence. The nominative also exists in English. In Russian dictionaries, all names are given to the nominative. Now let`s look at an example of how the word поезд changes depending on the case. Stressed vowels are underlined: Please note that the purpose of this lesson is to introduce the cases of Russian names.
If you would like to study cases in more detail, please read our lessons dedicated to each of the six cases in Russian. alphadictionary.com – This site has very short explanations for each case, but above all: quiz! You can test yourself online with multiple choice and fill-in exercises. Nominative case: The subject of the sentence. (“Ivan”) Accusative: The object of the sentence. (“Flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive: Indicates the property. (e.g. “Anna`s Flowers”) Instrumental case: means “with” or “by means of”. (“Anna writes in pencil”) Prepositional case: Used according to some statements.
(In, on, to and about.) Each Russian case has its own purpose and answers a certain set of questions. One of the reasons why cases are so important in the Russian language is the flexibility of the order of Russian phrase words. Because sentences can be put together in so many ways, cases help distinguish the subject of the sentence from its object. But even for these three, with the exception of the “s” to show possession, only the pronouns are fundamentally altered. Pronouns are also sometimes repeated in different cases. The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. In the phrase “I love it,” the word “I” is the subject. The nominative is the dictionary form for nouns, so there is nothing special to learn here. The prepositional case is also known as the locative case because it has often been used to refer to the position or activity of a sentence object.
Nowadays, however, it is only named after a few prepositions, hence its name. However, this is not uncommon, and the prepositions that call it are the most common of all Russian prepositions. These are в (in), на (on) and о/обо (approximately; it is обо in the expression “about me” or “about me”). However, these prepositions may also call for other cases, in which case their meaning changes. For example, в + prep means “in”, as in “I live in England”. However, в + acc means “in” or “to”, as in “I fly to New York”. Nouns in this case often come after the prepositions В (In), На (On) and O/об/ (Over). (Depending on the initial letters of the next word, the preposition O Ob or Oba can be pronounced.) The dative was common in early Indo-European languages and has survived to this day, among others, in the Balto-Slavic branch and in the Germanic branch. It also exists in similar forms in several non-Indo-European languages, such as the Uralic language family. In some languages, the dative has assimilated the functions of other cases, now extinct. In ancient Greek, the dative has the functions of the Proto-Indo-European locative and instrumental as well as those of the original dative. The following examples show the use of cases in Russian: Unlike nouns, adjectives do not have an intrinsic gender, but assume the gender of the noun they change.
By default, however, they end in ый, ий or ой, and they retain these forms when changing from masculine singular nouns to nominative. In English, it makes no sense to exchange the position of the words “Ivan” and “flowers”. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. In Russian, it is possible to change the order of these words while keeping the same meaning. You may want to do this to emphasize something. Although it is common in Russian to use a word order similar to English. The position of the Russian word is not so important because its meaning in the sentence is indicated by its upper and lower case. To indicate each case, we change the end of the word. Let`s look at the six cases (you don`t have to remember it yet): Finnish does not have a separate dative.
However, the allative can play essentially the same role as the dative, except for its primary sense of directed movement (i.e. going somewhere or approaching someone). For example: He lahjoittivat kaikki rahansa köyhille (They gave all their money to the poor.) Культурой is in the instrumental case and shows Ivan`s interest. The ending has changed here: культура (kool`TOOra) becomes культурой (kool`TOOray). To put it simply, cases of Russian names allow for a greater variety of meanings in simpler sentences. As in many other languages, the dative case is used in Hungarian to indicate the indirect object of a verb. For example, Dánielnek adtam ezt a könyvet (I gave this book to Dániel). It has two suffixes, -nak and -nek; The one on the right is selected by vowel harmony. Personal vative pronouns follow the -nek version: nekem, neked, etc. This case is also used to express “for” in certain circumstances, such as “I bought a gift for mom.” In possessive constructions, the endings nak/nek are also used, but this is not the dative form (but the attributive or possessive case). The genitive in Russian is most often used to indicate possession or origin. In other words, it indicates who or what has something, who or what something refers to, or where something or someone came from. Its English equivalent is the accusative or objective case (he, she).
Grammatical cases also exist in modern English, especially nominative and genitive cases. There are four cases in German and six in Russian. The following table shows the oblique cases of Hindustani for the names boy and girl, which take the dative case marker after them to assign the combination of oblique case and case marker to the dative case. The oblique case of Hindustani itself has no meaning and the addition of the case marker को کو (ko) assigns the function of the dative to the oblique case.      Basically, depending on the question that answers the word in question, you can find out which case applies. Then, you need to change the ending accordingly. The dative is rare in modern English usage, but it can be argued that it survives in some definite expressions. One example is the word “methinks,” which means “it seems to me.” It survives in this solid form of Old English (after undergoing phonetic changes with the rest of the language, however), in which it is known as “[it]” + “I” (the dative case of the personal pronoun) + “thinks” (i.e. “seems” (i.e.
“seems”, < Old English þyncan, "to seem", a verb closely related to the verb þencan, "to think", but differs from this one in Old English; Later, it merged with "think" and lost that meaning). Below is a very simple simplified template for understanding the cases. For now, we will stay away from pronouns and plurals.